Table of Contents
|A.Introduction (Please Read
B.Notes about Connection Speeds
C.Error Correction and Connection Components
D."Listening" for Noise on your Phone Line
E.Checking Line Quality with your Modem
F.Contacting the Phone Company
G.56K How it works
H.How do I tell if I can benefit from 56K
I.How fast can a 56K modem go?
I don't have time to read
all this stuff...
Take me straight to the 56k FAQ's...
A. Introduction (Please Read First)
The following document is a quick reference for those suspecting phone line problems with their phone lines. This document is not specific on the FCC required service level your Telco (TELephone COmpany) must deliver. That information can be obtained from the FCC directly. This information is provided to assist you in determining if there are line quality issues affecting your connection.
True Telco related problems should be related to constant disconnections or the lack of a connection. See the section on Connection Speeds if you are getting a lower than expected connection speed. See the section related to your modem and software for information on how to obtain other important troubleshooting information.
B. Notes about Connection Speeds
The phone network was designed for voice not data communications. Modems are designed to use this network for exchanging data. The latest modem technologies push the upper limits of quality phone lines. Modem connections at 14.4 and higher are unreliable without Error Correction (error correction lowers and increases your baud rate based on current line conditions). A connection speed does not necessarily reflect the current connection speed as this fluctuates. The connection speed is not necessarily a sign of performance. It is an academic issue because the throughput (the speed in which you are downloading data) is what matters the most. See the below paragraphs for V.34 and 56k.
1.V.34 Modems: V.34 modems (i.e. 28800 or 33600) enhanced Error Correction protocols and pushed the limits of analog phone lines to their limit (obtain the V.34 guide for more information). 33600 is a theoretical limit and is rarely seen. If you are getting a connection speed of 26400 or higher, consider yourself lucky because one of the most common connection speeds is 24000 (if you consistently see 19,200 and lower connection speeds you may want to go through the troubleshooting in this guide).
2.56K Modems: 56K modems take advantage of the "mostly" upgraded digital phone network. The call route between your home and the ISP must have only ONE Analog to Digital conversion (this is not guaranteed as voice lines do not require this- obtain the x2 guide for more information). The highest theoretical connection speed using 56K is 53333 (the FCC regulated limit). The actual connection speed will fluctuate. You may obtain a V.34 (i.e 28800 connection) if there is more than one Analog to Digital conversion. If the call route has only one Analog to Digital conversion you will obtain a much better connection which may range from 33333 to 53333. This connection speed varies because there is an Analog portion of a 56K connection.
C. Error Correction and Connection Components
1.Error Correction: As mentioned in the connection speed section, error correction was developed to resolve performance problems with modem connections. Without error correction your modem would never connect or frequently disconnect. Error correction allows the modem speed to lower or increase based on current line conditions. It should be performed by the modem itself (hardware error correction). This means the modem has the built in software to perform error correction. Software error correcting modems require your computer to perform the error correction. Since this process is slow these modems do not perform well (our service does not support these modems). Since error correction protocols are changed and updated often most hardware error correcting modems offer Firmware updates.
2.Connection Components (what must be checked in connection problems): Connection problems usually center around three things, these three items can adversely affect one another. Therefore a noisy phone line problem can be magnified if you are using an inexpensive modem, but can be decreased if you have a high end modem with the latest updates. The three factors of a connection include:
a.The Dialer Software and Operating SystemIf any of the three are unreliable your connection will be affected. Verify you have the help guide for your software package to rule out software problems. Retrieve the Modem Help Guide for modem related issues and have your phone lines checked. Remember a low connection speed of 24000 with a 33600 modem is normal. Also be aware V.90 performance is not guaranteed 100% of the time.
b.The Modem (it is always good to try another modem if possible)
c.The Phone Line
D. "Listening" for Noise on your Phone Line
Note: This checks for noise between your home and first Central Office.
1.How to "Listen" to your Phone Line: If you have any connection problems it may be related to "Line Noise" from your phone line. In order to really listen to your phone line you need to get rid of the dial tone. Lift up the phone handset and dial any number valid for your location (i.e. in the U.S. try dialing a 1). Once the dial tone is gone you have about 30 seconds to really listen to your phone line (after about 30s the line may change to a busy signal). Listen closely to the line and verify you do not hear any pops, bangs, crackles, creaking or faint voices in the background. Any of these noises can cause your modem connection to fail.
2.Possible Sources of Noise and Checking with Another Phone: These noises can be caused by something simple. Maybe a loose screw on a connector block somewhere between you and the exchange or water in one of the Telco cable ducts where the water-proofing (around the cable joints) has started to break down. It could also be a bad connection in the house somewhere and not necessarily on the line extension that is feeding your modem. Voices (or crosstalk) are not so easy to find and are usually more likely to be further into the system. The noises can also be coming from your phone or external wiring. So plug another phone directly into the wall jack and repeat the procedures above.
3.Wiring In and Around your Phone Jack: Cordless phone jacks and extra "outside wiring" near the phone jack should be removed. If you have a double phone jack on the wall try disconnecting the other phone line. All of these items may cause interference and connection problems.
E. Checking Line Quality with your Modem: To use your modem to run phone line diagnostics you need to first find what type of modem you are using. Most modem manufacturers use the Rockwell chipset, except a few like U.S. Robotics (USR) modems which use their own chipset
. To find out what chipset your modem uses you can contact your manufacturer or use a "Terminal Mode" to find if your modem has a Rockwell chipset. Put your modem into a Terminal Modem (see the below help for information) and send the following command: AT&V and hit enter. With Rockwell you should see a complete configuration dump starting with "Active Profile" and ending with "Telephone Number Stores." Next send the command
ATI4 and you should see up to 4 rows of checksum digits in "hex."
1.Rockwell Modem Testing: If you have a Rockwell chipset follow the below procedures:
a.Go into a Terminal Mode, with the phone line available and type ATDTxxx-xxxx (where x is the local access number from which you have connection problems) and hit enter.These two figures are the Line Level (%L) in -dbm (-20dbm in the example above) and the Eye Quality Monitor (%Q) index (8 in the example above). The two figures of -20dbm and 8 are reasonable values and higher figures mean worse connections. A value of -24dbm and higher on the first may mean a bad connection or no connection at all (note that "higher" refers to the actual number and not its relative negative value). A value of 15 and higher on the second mean there are real line problems with your Telco circuit. You will need to contact your Telco if you have bad figures.
b.The modem should then go through the connection process and return a connection speed. Pause and wait a few seconds.
c.Type +++ (3 pluses) without hitting the enter key (the modem should return an OK). You will still be online but in a terminal mode.
d.Now type the command AT%L%Q and hit enter (this step should be performed quickly because the connection may drop). The modem should return 2 figures on successive lines that look similar to 20 and 8.
e.Copy down these figures and close your Terminal program.
2.USR Modem Testing: If you are using a USR based modem chances are you can use ATI6 for checking. This procedure can be done on-line as listed in the Rockwell process or off-line since the USR chipset "remembers" the last connection. To perform this test off-line connect to the Internet for as long as possible and preferably after a disconnection go into a terminal modem (without dialing in). Type ATI6 and hit enter. The ATI6 will provided a full listing of modem connection information. The part you are interested in is the Blers or "Bit Link Error RateS". Ideally this figure should be 0, but if you have been on awhile and see this figure as 1 or 2 you probably have nothing to worry about. If it climbs much higher then you are probably suffering from noise or low level or both (as in the Rockwell example above). Unfortunately USR modems do not give an indication of the actual received carrier level in decibels/milliwat (dbm).
3.Other Modem Testing (modems other than Rockwell or USR): If your modem does not have a USR or Rockwell chipset consult your modem manual for diagnostic information or contact the manufacturer directly for information.
4.How to obtain a Terminal Mode:
In Windows 95:
Start Hyper Terminal from Windows Accessories (it can be installed from Add/Remove Programs in Control Panel). Once there start any existing icon (or create a new connection icon) and click Cancel on the Connect box. The only necessary setting is choosing the correct modem. From this panel you can send commands to your modem by typing into the "white screen."In Windows 3.x:
Start Terminal from the Accessories Program group. Once within Terminal click Settings from the menu bar and then Communications. Verify your com port is properly selected in the Connector field and click OK. From this panel you can send commands to your modem by typing into the "white screen."F. Contacting the Phone Company
1.Before contacting your local phone company you should:
a.Perform Dialer (software) troubleshooting (guides are available).2.Obtain all relative information and contact your local Telco:
b.Obtain the Modem Help Guide (if possible try another modem and verify your modem is hardware error correcting with the latest firmware revision).
c.See the section on connection speeds and error correction.
d.Go through the Listening and Modem testing procedures thoroughly.
Be ready to advise them that you have Line Noise and/or Low Line Level. Explain to them you are using a modem (do not hide this) and tell them normal voice communications is fine. If you do not tell them you are using a modem they will run a "quick" test and say the line is fine. This is not an accurate test, it is always best to have someone come on-site. If possible ask for a Data or "Fax" specialist. Ask if your digital exchange has a setting to have AGC (Automatic Gain Control) turned off and your line setting at the exchange set to position 5. Also ask the phone company to perform a trace from your home to our equipment (trace the call from your home to our local access number). Have them check the signal strength and quality through each Central Office. It may take several visits to locate the true source of the problem especially when Line Noise is present.
G. 56K....how it works
Since the early days of modems, phone lines have been used to transfer data, via a variety of techniques that modulate the amplitude, frequency, and/or phase of the analog signal so that it can represent digital information. By combining these techniques, modems can quickly send fairly large amounts of data over common phone lines. However, every analog-to-digital translation adds quantization noise, which limits traditional modems to speeds of about 33.6 kbps.
Digital-to-analog conversions don't have the noise problem. And that's the key to 56-kbps modems: we all call the Internet. Or rather, the Internet calls us. We're clients of Internet service providers (ISPs), most of which run digital modems connected to the phone system's digital backbone. So when you download data from the Net, there are no analog-to-digital conversions at the server end and only one relatively noise-free digital-to-analog conversion at your end. 56-kbps modems take advantage of that scenario by offering the greater speed one way only: from the server to you. The exchange from you to the server may be as slow as 28.8 kbps, but so what? Those are mouse clicks you're sending; it's information you're getting back.
But how does 56-kbps technology actually work? A modem divides the signal into different voltage levels. In the past, modem manufacturers limited the number of voltage levels, or amplitudes; incorporating more voltage levels into a signal requires a quiet line, which isn't possible with analog connections. Because of the all-digital transfer from the server to you, however, 56-kbps modems can increase the number of voltage levels to encode more data in a single cycle. In order for you to get a 56-kbps connection, your ISP must use a digital circuit, and you and the ISP must use the same type of 56-kbps technology. Don't confuse signal encoding with data compression. An older data transmission technique called V.42 defined a means of compressing data (as with a ZIP or StuffIt file) for online transmission, and it's still in widespread use--and will still work with 56-kbps modems. If you hook up to a server that uses the V.42 technique, uncompressed data (such as text files) will be compressed, making the throughput seem even faster. The following diagram might help a bit.
H. How do I tell if I can actually benefit from a 56k modem?
You can't tell by simply picking up the phone if your line can handle fast data transfers, but your modem may be able to tell you. If you can, check your current connection speeds before you invest in a 56-kbps modem. The Windows 95 dialer, for example, displays the speed during an online session, and some external modems have LCD panels that show connection speed.
If your 28.8-kbps modem--or, worse, your 33.6-kbps modem--is routinely connecting at 21.6 kbps or 19.2 kbps, you've got noisy phone lines. Faster rates may be out of your reach, at least in your present neighborhood. If your line is too noisy, modems automatically drop in speed. If your new 56-kbps modem thinks there are too many analog-to-digital conversions between you and the Internet, you'll get a connection at 33.6 kbps or slower. If your connection is clean enough, check with your ISP to see which type of 56-kbps technology it supports, and buy a modem to match. Both the Rockwell and U.S. Robotics versions of 56-kbps technology are backward-compatible, so if you call an x2 server with a K56flex modem, or vice-versa, it will be treated as a V.34 call--again giving you a 33.6-kbps connection.
Remember when you bought your last modem? The box was covered in promises that no matter what happened to modem technology, you'd always be able to upgrade. Does this apply to 56-kbps technology? The answer: a resounding maybe.
If you bought a U.S. Robotics Sportster 33.6 modem after August 15, 1996, you can upgrade to 56 kbps for $60--likewise for any U.S. Robotics Courier V.Everything modem. And for those and the company's newer products, you're promised another easy upgrade once the ITU standard is in place. U.S. Robotics is a big believer in flash memory upgrades, in which the pertinent software information is stored on an electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM). You simply download the new info from the Net, and then run a software program that locates your modem and writes the new information to that chip.
On the other hand, Rockwell chipset-based modems come in both firmware and flash memory versions. Firmware means that the pertinent information is stored on a ROM chip, which needs to be physically replaced (it has sockets for easy replacement). The advantage is that ROM chips cost a lot less than flash memory; Rockwell claims that using ROM instead of flash memory chops $50 off the price of a modem. Some current Rockwell-based modems can be upgraded to 56 kbps with a chip swap. In most cases, a hardware upgrade on an internal modem is an easy matter of replacing one socketed chip with another. With an external modem, you'll have to open the modem case to make the swap. Policies vary, so you'll have to consult the manufacturer for availability and instructions. You don't need to know anything from your ISP other than the 56-kbps technology it supports. You'll have to reconfigure your software to recognize a 56-kbps modem, using drivers (if necessary) supplied by the manufacturer; otherwise, you and your ISP should be able to communicate freely.
I. Just how fast can a 56-kbps modem go?
It can reach speeds of up to 61 kbps under perfect conditions--but such perfection is elusive. You'd need an especially clean, quiet line from the phone company's central office to your house, no problems with the FCC, and all-digital service between the phone company and your ISP, assuming you're connecting to one. But this was all before the FCC puts on the brakes. The chilling news came just days before U.S. Robotics shipped its x2 modems: the FCC won't let modems transfer data at a rate faster than 53 kbps. The legal snafu has to do with a long-standing FCC regulation known as Part 68, which was never intended to affect modems. The problem is that if you send too much power through the phone line, your conversation can get loud enough to creep into neighboring lines. This is called crosstalk, and Part 68 was meant to prevent it. But to reach 56 kbps, the new modems must send more power down the line. The new modems use voltage changes to transfer information, but some of the voltage changes are so close together that they can be obscured by even a small amount of line noise. Fortunately, new phone-line technology means that crosstalk may no longer be a problem. Thus, the FCC is reevaluating the ruling, says Elliot Maxwell, deputy chief of the FCC Office of Plans and Policy: "We're not going to say to modem makers that this rule has to stand between them and paradise."
The 2 Fords Network has installed a 48 channel Livingston/Lucent Portmaster 3 for its digital server. This unit uses the Rockwell KFlex technology. I contacted Rockwell and asked about what speed we could expect here in our area. I gave them some extensive information about what speeds our customers were getting with the analog lines, and they ran some tests of their own. Here's what they had to say
Local telco lines are the biggest drawback to getting the full potential out of your new 56K modem. The actual distance from you to your ISP is one factor, and conditions of the copper phone lines being used is another. Your signal starts off at as much as 61k but most likelsy will fall back to 33.6. Maybe 28.8. Or maybe even as low as 26. To prevent that from happening, just use any modem with a Rockwell K56flex chip inside. You'll have the highest probability of connectivity, because K56flex is the most widely accepted 56 Kbps technology in the industry. Hundreds and hundreds of modem makers and Internet service providers support K56flex. Far more than any other solution available. Probably because everyone knows Rockwell's been a leader in the modem industry for over 30 years, and 75% of all the modems in the world have a Rockwell chip inside.
Local 2 Fords Network customers using K56flex modems have connected as high as 41k so far according to early tests on our equipment here. Even though the slowest connect speeds have been down to 26, the transfer rate and download time is quite noticably faster. So much so that an actual reading is not needed to prove it.
56K FAQ's if you really want to know more, scroll up
Q. What kind of modem to I need to get 56K, V.90?
A. The time is now to determine what type of modem you have. If you have a 14.4 modem, it is time to upgrade. You will really notice the difference in download times. Naturally the only new modem to buy now is the 56K version. There are two types. U.S. Robobtics X2 and Rockwell's Kflex. The X2 modem utilizes a different protocol than the K56flex protocol. The 2 Fords Network now supports the new V.90 protocol.
In summary the following criteria must be met for V.90 to work:
1.The ISP must provide V.90 capable server connected to a trunk-side T1. (2 Fords Network does.)A more Technical explanation of V.90 is as follows:
2.The user must use an V.90 capable modem.
3.The phone company must provide a phone line route to the ISP with only ONE Analog to Digital conversion.
V.90 technology takes advantage of the "mostly upgraded" digital phone line network. The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), which is maintained by telephone companies, has been upgrading to digital lines between the various Central Offices (CO) over the past few years. (A PSTN is the entire phone network and a CO is a type of switching station that routes a call to a destination point or passes it on to another CO).
Before digital the standard in voice communication was Analog which transmits data in the form of Waves vs. the 1's and 0's used in digital transmissions. The phone lines between your home (or calling location) and your closest CO is still Analog and will be for many years to come (unless you purchase an ISDN line). Analog is sufficient for Voice communications but imposes limits on data transmission.
A data conversion between Analog and Digital limits the communication channel to 33.6 K which is the V.34 limit. This is why sending is limited to 33.6 K in V.90 (your home phone line is Analog and it is converted to digital when it hits the CO). A data conversion between Digital and Analog does NOT limit the communication channel, and this is the key to v.90. Your V.90 modem passes the data to the CO in a digital form. Assuming the data arrives to your local CO without converting between Analog and Digital again you will be able to receive data at speeds up to 53.3K! However, if the modem detects more than one Analog to Digital conversion in the PSTN it will automatically adjust to a V.34 connection (33.6K or lower).
(Analog note: If you are using the 2 Fords Network analog services, you may need to change dial-up numbers depending on which protocol modem you are using. The 2 Fords Network is the only ISP in this area that offers you both US Robotics and Rockwell protocols. If you are having unusual disconnects or slow speeds, check first to see which brand modem and which chipset it has and then call the tech support line at 758-5527 to see which bank of modems you should use for dial-up.)
Q. Will I connect at 56Kbps?
A. The ability to connect at speeds above 28.8Kbps is not guaranteed. There are several key qualifiers that must be met first:
1. Is my Modem 56K capable?Q. Why am I connecting below 28.8Kbps?
2. Am I utilizing a PBX? (If you are, your connect speeds will be reduces even further.)
3. How far is the 2 Fords Network from my home?
4. Are my phone lines connected to the digital network? (If you are not paying $24.95 per month, you are not connected via our incoming channelized digital T1.)
A. Phone lines limit V.34 and V.90 connections. These connection speeds are decreased by line noise in Analog phone signals. Since there is an analog portion in a V.90 connection (between your home and the CO) this will limit the connection rate. The length and quality of the phone lines between your home and the first CO are the determining factor of your connection speed.
Normal V.90 connection speeds will be in the range of 44 to 50K. The highest connection speed because of the FCC regulations should be 53K.
Many performance problems are seen with V.90 including disconnections and constant poor throughput.
To troubleshoot the performance problems with a V.90 modem, do the following:
1.Lower your port speed to 57600 (if using Win 95 go to My Computer, Dial-Up Networking, highlight the IBM Global Network Icon and choose File then Properties from the menu bar. Click the button Configure and set the maximum speed to 57600. Click the Connection tab then the Port Settings button. Lower both Buffer settings to the lowest notch and uncheck Use FIFO buffers). Retry the connection and if it solves the problem slowly increase these settings. If using an external modem verify your UART chip is 16550 under modem Diagnostics.Note: These modem commands may not be universal for all modem models/ firmware revisions. It is always best to check your modem manual or contact the modem manufacturer directly.
2.Download the Modem wizard upgrade for USR modems. The Sportster software can be found at
3.Contact your modem manufacturer for the latest Modem drivers and/or Firmware revision.
4.Other issues may be resolved by added various modem commands to the Modem Initialization string. In Windows 3.x, OS/2 and Macintosh machines go to your Internet dialer modem settings. There should be an option to create a new modem. Simply append a command to the end of the existing modem string. In Windows 95 and NT go to the Modems icon in Control Panel. Highlight your modem, click Properties, click the Connection tab and then the Advanced button. Simply type the commands in the Extra settings field (do not add an AT).
Disable x2 in a USR Sportster with: S32=34Q. How does 56Kbps modem technology work? What makes it different from 28.8Kbps?
Disable x2 in a USR Courier with: S58.0=1
Disable Flex (Motorola and Hayes) with: +MS=11,1,300,33600
Disable V.42 Error Control (forces MNP5) with: S15=128
Disable Compression with: &K0
A. 56Kbps technology is a DIGITAL technology- The only section in the loop which is not digital is the copper wire connection between your home and the central office. Digital signals are not affected by line noise caused by moisture, bleed through, and other things that affect the analog signal. It is similar to the difference between AM and FM radio's. You can hear lightning and other static on an AM radio station, and the same lightning does not affect the FM stations. Since the local lines are the greatest factor affecting modem speed, you might like to go to the following site and check the quality of the phone lines in your area. http://consumer.3com.com/
Q. Don't all ISP's use digital technology?
A. Many ISPs DO NOT have a digital connection, but the 2 Fords Network does, in two directions. We have a channelized digital incoming T1 to bring the signal from your computer to our office and we have the fully dedicated outgoing digital T1 that connects our offices here in Aransas Pass to the POP in Corpus Christi where it is connected to a fiber optics T3 pipeline to the backbone of the World Wide Web.
Q. What is the difference between connect speed and download speed?
A.Download speed is also sometimes referred to as transfer rate. The primary difference is that the connect speed is what you connect at when you first log on to the internet. That speed will increase greatly when you begin to move away from the home page and go from site to site. The transfer rate on the digital service can reach to 44k+ depending on which site you are going to. The increase in speed is very noticeable on the digital lines because you have a full 56k pipeline right to the web with no other net traffic sharing the space.
Q. Will I get 56Kbps download speed?
A. 56Kbps speeds can only be achieved with perfect line conditions. These conditions do not exist anywhere in the 2 Fords Network area. How much speed you get will depend on the length of the wire from your home to your local telco switch, the number of transfers or switches your phone call makes through the telco network on its way to the 2 Fords Network, and software updates from the modem manufacturers. Since the local lines are the greatest factor, you might like to go to the following site and check the quality of the phone lines in your area. http://consumer.3com.com/ The typical users will experience connect speeds on a 56K line that vary between 26Kbps and 44 Kbps.
Q. How will 56Kbps services compare in price to other digital services?
A. There is no increase in price from the 2 Fords Network Premium rate. The primary advantages are the increased download speeds and less busy signals.
Q. Will my the phone company need to install new equipment if I'm not getting 56K?
A. Theoretically, if your phone is on a digital network, you could call the phone company and ask about your loop to the central office analog harness which may be prohibiting 56K service to your home. The phone company also offers line provisioning for your phone line. Naturally anything the local telco does to "beef" up your analog lines will cost you money, but it will result in greates speeds. Before calling the telco, you should try the digital service first and see if the normal increase in speed will be sufficient for your needs.
Q. Will my existing modem (non-56K) work with the K56flex?
A. The 2 Fords Network Digital Server supports all V.34 - V.90 modems. That includes everything from 28.8 to 56k. During the initial stages of the connection the two modems will determine what modulation technique to use and "try" various speeds until transmission occurs. A reminder that now is the time to upgrade and get away from the 14.4 and 28.8 modems. With the new standard now a reality, it is truly time to "go digital".
Q. How does a 56K modem work?
A. The 56K modems are digitally terminated, and transmissions don't have to be converted back to analog. This eliminates one analog loop, lowers noise levels, and allows the higher transmission rates. The K56flex modem achieves higher downstream speeds because digital signals are sent and received with very little noise. The upstream direction remains slower because a conversion must still be made at the client end. To put this in plain english, your commands to the internet move at the same speed as before, but your download speed is almost doubled. This is ok since you are downloading tons of informaton, and only uploading "mouse clicks".
Q. What are some of the limitations present in the new 2 Fords digital network?
A. They can be broken down into 3 major categories:
1... Compatibility. 56K is compatible with previous communication standards and the call will fall back to the next fastest speed whenever high-speed communication is not possible, This will happen when network and subscriber loop conditions prevent the full utilization of the 56Kbps modems. (In other words, when the weather is lousy and the phone lines are giving less than normal performance.)
2... Network-Imposed Limitations. Older computer and modem signaling systems use the least significant bit for sampling, so not all 8-bit code words are allowed on the network. The modem detects these network limitations and provide compensation to achieve the highest data rate possible on a given connection. (In other words, it's time to get rid of those 14.4 modems. Also, I know you don't want to hear it, but it is time to move away from the Windows 3.x format.)
3... Synchronization: In a digital communication system, your modem must be synchronized with the 2 Fords Network Kflex system to properly decode the 56K data transmitted. This synchronization is optimized if you are upgraded to the new V.90 standard.
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